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1.3.3 Case Transfer Protocol

RELEVANT CHAPTER

This chapter should be read in conjunction with the Assessment Protocol.

AMENDMENT

This chapter was updated in December 2015. In Section 3, Roles & Responsibilities it was clarified that it is the responsibility of the Duty Team Manager to allocate the case to the receiving team. In Section 6.1, Key Principles it is clarified that the handover must include an updated position of the case plan and key issues to take forward and in Section 7.2, Transferring out Team Manager, the date of the case transfer will be agreed by the Case Transfer Meeting. In Section 8, Dispute Resolution it is made clear that Disputes about missing information or documents should not prevent the receiving team from working with the case as per the recommendation of the transfer panel.


Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Key Principles
  3. Roles & Responsibilities
  4. Arrangements for Transfer
  5. Eligibility of Cases for Transfer
  6. Requirements for Transfer
  7. Requirements for Staff
  8. Dispute Resolution

    Appendix 1: Connected Persons Viability

    Appendix 2: Summary of Risk and Protective Factors

    Appendix 3: Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders - Workflow

    Appendix 4: Information for Transfer to Children in Care Moving on Team


1. Introduction

The purpose of Children’s Social Care specialist division is to safeguard and support children in need of protection, children in care and children designated as ‘in need’. All services aim to improve outcomes for children, young people and their families.

The aim of this protocol is to confirm the process for transferring work between the teams within CYPS. This protocol has been developed to support the relationship between services within the Children’s Social Care and to enable them to work together effectively and efficiently.

The guiding principle of all transfer decisions must be to ensure that children are safeguarded and that services are provided in a coherent and child-focussed manner. This protocol provides guidance on how that is most likely to be achieved, taking into account the remit of services and the statutory framework. However, the complex nature of the needs of individual children may mean specific decisions have to be made on individual cases. 


2. Key Principles

Needs Led - There can be no delay in providing a service because there is uncertainty or disagreement about which service should take responsibility for a case; any disagreement must be resolved within one working week.  It should be clear at all points of the transfer process who is responsible for the case and that this is clearly recorded on Liquid Logic.

No Delay - Allocation pressures in the receiving team is not a valid reason to not accept a case. There is an expectation that all written work is up to date with a clear plan in place.

Reasonableness - The transfer protocol may not fit all circumstances, and therefore flexibility is needed according to what is best for the child(ren) and their family and the management of the case. Case transfer should only happen when the focus of the work moves from the remit of one service to another.  However, no decisions can be unilateral; both sides of the transfer process must be actively involved in that decision. Direct discussion between managers to agree an appropriate way forward is essential.

Departmental Perspective - All managers have a shared responsibility for the work of the department as a whole and the work flow through and between teams

Communication - Both the family and other professionals in the network must be informed about the transfer. It is the responsibility of the current (allocated) practitioner to keep all stakeholders informed of any changes


3. Roles & Responsibilities

Social workers are responsible for ensuring cases for transfer are written up and prepared in accordance with service requirements and to inform other professionals and service users of the planned transfer.

Team Managers are responsible for sending and receiving case files for transfer. Once the case has been accepted for transfer they are responsible for ensuring allocation to a social worker and that the plan is carried out as required.

A transfer summary or assessment is sent on notice of a request to transfer a case. Any papers held in a hard copy file, that cannot be scanned will be sent at the time of the actual transfer. Once the transfer panel has agreed that the case will move, it is the responsibility of the Duty Team manager to allocate the case to the receiving team. It is then the responsibility of the receiving manager to identify a social worker to take on the case.

It is expected that all documentation should be completed prior to transfer. Any significant failures to do so should be reported to the relevant Service Manager. Responsibility to complete the documentation remains with the “transferring out” social worker. However missing documentation (documents that exist but we cannot locate will not be used as a reason to prevent transfer within children’s social care.  Any missing documentation must be sent as soon as located, or the receiving team informed of the reason why such documentation is not available. In all cases a timescale for the completion of documents must be given and adhered to at point of transfer.

Any problems encountered in the transfer process should be reported to the relevant  Service Manager.

Case responsibility remains with transferring out team until Transfer episode is accepted by receiving team which should usually be within one working day of confirmation on Liquid Logic


4. Arrangements for Transfer

4.1 Governance

The Service Manager is the designated decision maker in regard to the movement of cases between Service areas. It is the responsibility of the service manager to raise any unresolved issues with the Divisional Director.

The Team Manager (Duty/Assessment/CHIN) is responsible for updating the transfer list on a weekly basis (delegated to a DTM when TM is on leave).

The receiving team managers will check the transfer list weekly and ensure they have identified appropriate allocation arrangements and communicated them effectively to all concerned.

In the event that the receiving team manager is unable to allocate work, it is their responsibility to bring that to the attention of their service manager.

Each DTM/TM has responsibility to ensure that staff have an appropriate case load.

When a (FTE) social worker has more than 25 children/young people on their caseload it is the responsibility of their line manager to bring this to the attention of their team manager and take steps to ensure that the case load is brought down within 10 working days.

The team manager will alert their service manager at this time if they are unable to resolve the caseload issue  

4.2 Special Circumstances on Cases

Cases transfer on the principle that there should only be one social worker allocated to the sibling group who are resident in the same household. However there may be occasions especially relating to disabled children when expertise is required that warrant co-working across teams. In these circumstances it is essential that the ’key’ worker is clearly identified and recorded on Liquid Logic. Moreover a record is also confirmed regarding the designated manager.


5. Eligibility of Cases for Transfer

5.1 Transfers from Duty & Assessment & Hospital Team (DCT)

5.1.1 CIN Cases

  • Child in need cases can be transferred to the Family Intervention Team (FIT - 0-19years service)  following an assessment that has identified that the needs within the family are at a level requiring an intervention from a non- qualified social worker;
  • The point of transfer is at the CIN meeting following the completion of the Assessment. The CIN meeting should take place within 10 days of the completion of the Assessment;
  • The duty team produces the Child in Need Plan;
  • DCT who receive all referrals from the RUH will communicate directly with the duty and assessment team at the earliest opportunity;
  • All non- disabled children referred by the RUH A&E department will be referred on to: the allocated social worker, or the duty and assessment team. A decision regarding response will be made in accordance with existing procedures (within 24 hours);
  • Agreement will be reached between the DCT duty social worker and the Duty Team what immediate actions are required and who will be responsible for those actions and this will be recorded.

5.1.2 Child Protection Cases

  • The duty and assessment team social worker completes the section 47 and the initial child protection report;
  • Children who are the subject of a Child Protection Plan will transfer from the duty team at the first core group meeting following the Initial Child Protection Conference; 
  • Where possible a manager from the CP team will attend the ICPC;
  • Social workers from both teams attend the first Core Group Meeting, to ensure a good handover of information and introductions. The duty team social worker or their DTM chairs the meeting and they are responsible for the minutes;
  • Children who are not subject to a Child Protection (CP) plan after the initial Child Protection conference will remain  the responsibility of the current allocated worker until the case can be stepped down;
  • Notification should be made of transfer at the point when a case conference date is confirmed.

5.1.3 Children in Care or Subject to Care Proceedings

  • Children who are accommodated under section 20 will be transferred to the children in care team at the second statutory review where the care plan has ruled out reunification home;
  • The Children in Care Team will be invited to Legal Planning Meetings to assist their planning for allocation and the potential for the completion of the Child Permanency Report within court timescales;
  • The Children in Care Team will be informed of children who are subject to court proceedings at the point of issue, in particular where the circumstances were on an emergency basis and unexpected.

NB - Given the complexity of children looked after early notification is paramount.  In cases that are entering proceedings it will be essential to involve the children in care team at an early stage of the legal process to ensure that both services are in agreement with the proposed protection and care plan and plan for permanence. Minutes of legal planning meetings will be shared with the Service Manager for Care Outcomes.

5.1.4 No Recourse to Public Funds

  • These cases should be viewed in the same way as CIN and CP as stated above.

5.1.5 Private Fostering Cases

  • Private fostering cases will be assessed and allocated within CFAIT. The DTM in the duty team has lead responsibility to co-ordinate management information and monitor activity. Any changes in circumstances need to be report to the designated DTM.

5.1.6 Out of Borough

  • Cases where a child has moved into B&NES an assessment will be completed by the duty and assessment team and will follow the same path as outlined above;
  • Cases that transfer in from other Local Authorities such as transfer in case conference, Supervision order renewal application, and Family Assistance Orders will go directly to the relevant team as outlined in this document.

5.1.7 Viability Assessments

  • The Family Justice pre-proceedings process has new requirements, one of which is the early identification of connected persons  who may be able to care for a child in the event that the parents are unable to do so;
  • The child protection process will consider this as part of its contingency planning when child protection plans have not progressed and interventions have not improved parenting capacity. We expect this to happen at the first CP review;
  • Where more than one connected person is identified the family will be asked to identify the person most likely to be able to provide a long term arrangement for their child;
  • Where consideration is being made to place a child with a family member or friend this  requires a Connected Persons assessment. The  initial checks will be done by the case holding social worker before contact is made  with the Family Placement Team;
  • Where initial checks do not rule out the applicant an FPT social worker will be identified to work with the allocated social worker to visit  the  connected person  to consider their application. In many cases one joint visit may be sufficient to decide whether a further assessment is required;
  • It is envisaged that the most suitable relative will be assessed but it may be the case that more than one set of carers will need to be considered;
  • The viability assessment will be approved by the team manager and the relevant service manager and Agency Decision Maker;
  • If the viability assessment shows potential, the FPT are required to complete a full fostering assessment within 16 weeks.

Refer to Connected Persons Viability Flowchart.

5.2 Transfers from Family Support and Child Protection

5.2.1 CIN Case

  • Where the duty and assessment team have completed their CHIN intervention a TAC/F will be convened by the allocated worker and stepped down as required (not all cases will required continued support). Should cases re-refer within 3 months of closure the duty and assessment team worker will resume case responsibility for the family / young person;
  • The step down process will have identified a lead professional;
  • Where the SFIT are closing their intervention a TAC/F will be chaired by a manager and stepped down with an identified lead professional;
  • Where difficulties arise in this process the allocated worker will seek consultation with the senior practitioner - interface.

5.2.2 Child Protection Cases

  • When a child protection plan has been discharged and the family ‘stepped down’ if the family are re-referred within three months the CP/Court team will resume case responsibility.  

5.2.3 Homeless

  • If young person assessed as statutorily homeless accepts S.20 accommodation then Deputy Team Manager of Leaving Care Team shall be involved in setting up finances and transfer at first review meeting (within 4 months), (and assessment). (See Appendix 4: Summary of Risk and Protective Factors).

5.3 Transfers from Children in Care Team

5.3.1 CIN Cases

  • When a young person returns home having been in care under Section 20, support should be offered for up to 4 months by the Children in Care Team after returning home;
  • When a child/young person has returned home on a care order the Children in Care Team will be responsible for the discharge of the care order and where appropriate responsible for the supervision order;
  • In circumstances where a child has been returned home and the case is now closed or stepped down, where there is a new referral within three months the CiCMOT will take responsibility;
  • After three month closure period, a new referral will be considered by the Duty Team;
  • After this 4 month period the case should be prepared for transfer to universal or targeted services by means of a step down meeting and the identification of a lead professional. This will be in circumstances where the family situation is stable and the plan is for the young person to remain within their family/wider family.

5.3.2 Child Protection Cases

  • If there are child protection issues on a child looked after these will be dealt with by Children in Care Team to include children returning home and being supported by Children in Care Team in the following 4 months.

5.3.3 Leaving Care

  • The Children in Care Team are responsible for care leavers. There is an established process in place, informed by the young person’s Pathway Plan of transfer from a social worker to a Moving on Team advisor;
  • For children who are allocated to the Disabled Children’s Team and who will be eligible for leaving care service at 18; when they are 17.5, the Disabled Children’s team manager must alert the team manager in the Children in Care team. This way, a Moving On Worker can be allocated but the Children in Care team to liaise with the Disabled Children’s team worker for a handover.

5.3.4 Other Case Scenarios

In circumstances where a new child is expected to a family held in the children in care team where sibling children have been previously removed:

  • The CP/Court team will work alongside the Children in Care Team allocated worker to assess the new circumstances. It will be a management decision as to whether it is appropriate for the previous social workers to be re-allocated the case;
  • If sibling children have been removed within 12 months  or care proceedings have concluded within the last 12 months, the Duty team will liaise with the CP/Court team to negotiate who is responsible for the new child. This will depend on how significantly different the parents circumstances are from the period when care proceedings were instigated. A judgement will need to be made by the team that receives the ‘referral’, whether a new worker would be beneficial to the child or if the circumstances are similar, the likelihood of further proceedings to be issued in which case a direct allocation in the CP/Court team would be more appropriate;
  • Where a young person in care becomes pregnant and an assessment is required, the senior practitioner - intensive parenting (CBA) will carry out a pre-birth assessment in collaboration with the allocated child in care worker. When that assessment is completed the senior practitioner will make a recommendation regarding where the case responsibility for the unborn child should lie;
  • When a young person is the subject of a pre- birth assessment a decision should be made as to the need for the parent and the child to each have their own social worker. This will be influenced by what other services to the young person are available, access to advocacy and mental capacity;
  • At all times it is essential that there is clarity regarding ONE designated manager responsible for the case and that s/he ensures there are regular joint supervision sessions to plan for the case in a co-ordinated way; 
  • Where staff move to a different team (job swops etc.) cases should not travel with them. Cases that need to move team should always be subject to the same transfer process between managers;
  • Young People subject to The Legal aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act (LASPO) 2012. Where a young person is securely remanded and become ‘looked after’ the social work role will be delivered by the Children in Care team unless the young person already has an allocated worker in another team; (see Appendix 5: Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders - Workflow);
  • Children relinquished for adoption will be allocated to a worker in the Children in Care team. 

5.4 Transfers to Children with Disabilities

5.4.1 Case Remit

  • The Disabled Children’s Team work with children who have severe or profound disabilities, see Appendix 6: Information for Transfer to Children in Care Moving on Team;
  • The single assessment will be carried out by the disability service to identify their needs and care plan;
  • If the level of disability is not clear from the referral, DCT will make enquiries and where appropriate conduct an assessment to determine if threshold for their service is met;
  • Where threshold is not met DCT will step down as appropriate;
  • Where threshold is met and the DCT retain case-holding responsibility and where safeguarding concerns are identified, DCT will carry out those enquiries;
  • Within the principle that a family have one social worker and one team, and where the disabled child is also made subject of Section 47 Enquiries, a CPC or care proceedings the DCT will retain case management;
  • When a disabled child has a permanency plan to remain in care, consideration will be given as to whether and when the child/YP should be transferred to the Children in Care Team;
  • If the family are receiving a social care service from another team and either a child is designated as disabled,(by means of a new diagnosis, illness or accident) DCT will be asked to provide direct expertise or provide consultation. 


6. Requirements for Transfers

6.1 Key Principles 

  • It is the responsibility of the Transferring out Team Manager and receiving Team Manager to arrange the details of the transfer. The handover must include an updated position of the case plan and key issues to take forward. Where appropriate, a handover meeting involving the relinquishing and accepting social workers will take place. It is the responsibility of the relinquishing social worker to notify all interested parties to the change of social worker. If the case does not transfer on the agreed date, it is the responsibility of the transferring out team manager to negotiate a new date with the receiving team manager for the transfer of the case;
  • If the case does not transfer on the agreed date, it is the responsibility of the transferring out team manager to negotiate a new date with the receiving team manager for the transfer of the case;
  • Cases should not transfer on a Friday, unless handover arrangements and meetings have already taken place and the receiving Deputy Team Manager / Team Manager is accepting of these arrangements;
  • When a transfer date is not kept the case should not transfer if there is a review / court date within one week of the proposed new date.

6.2 Generic Requirements, all services

Required documentations as appropriate to the service area:

  • Transfer Summary;
  • Up-to-date case notes;
  • Full case Chronology;
  • An assessment will cover much of the Transfer Summary so that information should not be repeated - The Transfer summary will be a case synopsis, and highlight outstanding tasks, important dates, financial commitments, etc.   
  • Delegated Authority Documentation.

6.3 Specific Requirements from each team

6.3.1 Duty/Assessment - CP/Court

CIN Cases

  • Single Assessment;
  • CIN Plan;
  • Delegated Authority Documentation.

Child Protection Cases

  • Assessment;
  • Strategy Meeting/discussion;
  • Section 47;
  • Conference Report;
  • Child Protection Plan;
  • PLO / LPM Minutes (where appropriate);
  • Delegated Authority Documentation.

LAC Documents

  • Review papers;
  • Contact Plan;
  • Placement and Information Record;
  • Care plan;
  • Statutory Medical;
  • Assessment;
  • Risk Assessment (where appropriate);
  • Copies of any addresses on file; 
  • Delegated Authority Documentation.

6.3.2 CP/Court to Children in Care Team

LAC Documents

  • Review papers;
  • Contact Plan;
  • Placement and Information Record;
  • Care plan;
  • Statutory Medical;
  • Assessment;
  • Risk Assessment (where appropriate);
  • Court Documents (where appropriate);
  • Copies of any addresses on file; 
  • Delegated Authority Documentation.

6.3.3 Leaving Care

LAC Documents

  • Review papers;
  • Needs Assessment;
  • Contact Plan;
  • Placement and Information Record;
  • Care plan;
  • Statutory Medical;
  • Risk Assessment (where appropriate);
  • Court Documents (where appropriate);
  • Pathway Plan.

6.3.4 Children in Care Team to CFAIT

CIN Cases

  • Assessment;
  • CIN Plan.

Child Protection Cases

  • Assessment;
  • Strategy Meeting/discussion;
  • Section 47;
  • Conference Report;
  • Child Protection Plan.

All Cases

  • Supervision records;
  • File Audit;
  • Updated Chronology.


7. Requirements for Staff

7.1 Transferring out Social Worker

  • Adherence to this protocol with regards to case status, record-keeping, circumstances for transfer and time frame requirements;
  • Discuss the transfer plan with the child and/or parent/carer as appropriate wherever possible and confirm the changes in writing;
  • Complete visitation and contact requirements; 
  • Ensure that a face-to-face meeting with the child has taken place in the last 2 weeks (child on CP cases) or last month ( Children in care);
  • Complete and update all paperwork;
  • If the transfer summary was sent in advance, subsequent significant events are to be recorded;
  • Discuss the transfer process with the team manager and verify that all work in advance of transfer has been completed;
  • Ensure that key partners are aware of the transfer and have the name of the receiving social worker and team manager;
  • Ensure that Liquid Logic core data is accurate, including legal status;
  • Communication with the receiving team is essential including a verbal handover to the receiving Social Worker and Team Manager, which is then put in writing to ensure everyone has understood what has been agreed;
  • The social worker has conducted self-assessment case audit in accordance with the case transfer summary;
  • Arrange a joint visit with receiving social worker.

7.2 Transferring out Team Manager

  • A Transfer Summary has been completed;
  • Review the case files to ensure they are complete;
  • Ensure that all required documents are complete and on Liquid Logic;
  • The date of the case transfer will be agreed by the Case Transfer Meeting. This will usually be two weeks from the date that the meeting agreed the transfer.

Before transferring out a case the team manager checks and confirms that all the documents viewed as essential are up to date and complete (Section 6.3, Specific Requirements from each team). A tick list can be created for this.

7.3 Receiving Social Worker

  • Be familiar with the outline of the case as recorded in the transfer summary to formulate issues for handover and supervision;
  • Prioritise time for verbal handover from the transferring out team;
  • Review the case immediately for key diary dates;
  • Write an introductory letter to the parents/child;
  • Have face-to-face contacts with the child and parents/carers within 5 working days of receiving case;
  • Contact identified key partners within 5 working days of receiving case;
  • Arrange a joint visit with finishing social worker.

7.4 Receiving Team Manager

  • Be familiar with the outline of the case as shown in the transfer summary and chronology when considering allocation;
  • Identify any urgent problems, special concerns or required actions from the written/verbal handover;
  • Allocate the case to worker on Liquid Logic, update the file location and check the team specified on the referral is correct;
  • This task is completed within one working day of receiving case on Liquid Logic;
  • Notify Service Manager of any disagreement about case responsibility or any delays or other difficulty.

7.5 Service Managers

  • Ensure satisfactory functioning of transfer procedures and make changes if required
  • Monitor the overall distribution of cases within Children’s Services
  • Discuss with other senior management in the event of any disagreement on which service a case belongs to.


8. Dispute Resolution

In the event of a disagreement regarding a case transfer, the following will apply, according to the table below: 

  Issue To be resolved by  
1 Straightforward cases that fit the protocol Team manager Team managers should resolve the majority of cases that need transfer.
2 Uncertainty or no agreement Service Manager Service Manager will discuss and should resolve the majority of uncertain cases.
3 Unresolved Divisional Director Where needed, the Divisional Director will make the final decision.

Disputes about missing information or documents should not prevent the receiving team from working with the case as per the recommendation of the transfer panel. Any documents that are missing will be subject to a discussion between the team mangers to ensure that they are added to the file within a reasonable time frame but their absence should not be a reason to prevent the transfer occurring.


Appendix 1: Connected Persons Viability

A ‘connected person’ is a relative, friend or other person already connected with the child.

If we make the placement (s.20) they have to have a viability assessment BEFORE placement. A viability assessment considers the likelihood of carers being able to meet the physical and emotional needs of a child now and throughout their childhood and provide stability, boundaries and ensure their safety.

The viability assessment is an initial ’screening’ assessment to establish whether those putting themselves forward to care for a child have the potential to meet the child’s needs and whether they should go forward for a full form F assessment to be assessed as foster carers.

Click here to view Connected Persons Viability Flowchart.


Appendix 2: Summary of Risk and Protective Factors

The attached Summary of risk and protective factors should not be used just as a checklist of acceptability and non-acceptability, but as an aid to exploring these issues and finding out if there is capacity for change, so that any risks can be minimised. The assessment should contain an analysis of the potential fit between the child's needs and the prospective carers' ability to meet them.

To help identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of the proposed placement when undertaking a viability assessment.

Areas to be examined Risk factors
Some examples
Protective factors
Some examples
Family Composition Existing major relationship difficulties with children. Presence of household members who have a negative, potentially or actually abusive relationship with the child/children. Warm supportive relationships within the family, sharing responsibilities. Prospective carers and any children have positive, well established relationships with the child/ren.
Family Network Persistent discord and divided loyalties in the network. Evidence of collusive, tangled relationship with the child/ren's parents.

Acknowledgement of the parents' difficulties which led to social services intervention.

Awareness of the child's need to maintain links with significant people and ability to manage contact arrangements.

Background factors - Family history and current functioning Lack of insight into own difficulties in the past, especially where this affected parenting of their own children. Children are most vulnerable when carers' mental illness or problem alcohol and drug use coexist with domestic violence.

Ability to appreciate how personal experiences have affected themselves and their families. 

Resolution of past problems - alcohol, drugs, mental illness, domestic violence.  Evidence of this.

Health and police checks Major current or chronic physical and/or mental health problems.  These might rule out the applicant(s), if severe.  Record of offences against children would generally rule the applicant out. Ability to maintain effective functioning through periods of stress. Evidence of having moved on from any early offending behaviour.
Housing Poor likelihood of obtaining adequate accommodation within a realistic time frame. Environmental health and safety concerns. Adequate space for the family's needs, including the child/ren to be placed.  Good physical standards in the home.
Employment/income Evidence of persistent financial problems - heavy debts. Unrealistic notions of the level of financial support available to support the proposed placement. Adequate financial resources. Good money management.
Family's social integration - access to community resources Ability to provide the required personal references will give some indication of their peer group and social networks. Racial conflict and stereotyping in the family network - particularly significant for children of dual heritage. Ability to develop a support system within the community and personal networks. Ability to work with professionals and agencies and act as an advocate for the child.
Parenting capacity - capacity to meet the children's physical needs Carelessness about the whereabouts and safety of children. Poor standards of physical care. Difficulty feeding child, managing routines. Ability to provide a good standard of physical care and promote healthy development throughout childhood.
Ensuring safety - capacity to protect Denial of the child protection concerns and risks identified by social services would cast doubt on the applicant(s)' viability.  Especially in the case of grandparents, this may be due to the initial shock.

Ability to protect children from damaging contact with people who have abused them. 

Ability to recognise the particular vulnerability of individual children to abuse and discrimination.

Emotional warmth - capacity to meet the children's emotional needs Lack of empathy for the child and persistent complaints about his/her behaviour. Lack of understanding of how abuse, separation and loss affect children.

Enjoyment of the child's company, liking the child.  Ability to promote the child's self-esteem. 

Ability to accept the individual child as he/she is and to provide appropriate care.

Stimulation

Lack of understanding of the needs of children to play and learn. 

Inappropriate expectations (too high or too low) of child's capacity.

Creating appropriate opportunities for children to learn and play. 

Good relationships with the children's schools and supportive of positive out-of-school activities and interests.

Guidance and boundaries

Rigid, coercive discipline without time, patience and coaxing to obtain the child's compliance. 

Regular use of physical punishments, threats or bribes.

Ability to set appropriate boundaries and manage children's behaviour
Stability

High number of moves in the last 10 years within and between countries. 

High number of people who would be involved with the child.

Well settled in their present home. High commitment and dependability.

Table reproduced from Relative Benefits Placing children in kinship care by Bob Broad and Alison Skinner. Published by BAAF.


Appendix 3: Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders - Workflow

Click here to view flowchart


Appendix 4: Information for Transfer to Children in Care Moving on Team

Click here to access form

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